Sorry you're having such a rough time.
To be honest, I think this is a company issue (or possibly even just a management issue). Of course there are always going to be cultural quirks that lie somewhere on a spectrum, so I don't believe German work culture can be summed up as one specific thing. There are lots of good companies in Berlin from startups to global corporations, and some will be more global in their thinking and culture than others.
Maybe I've been lucky with my experiences so far, but I've worked for smaller German companies and international ones and both had their moments - though nothing that shouldn't be expected when dealing with different cultures and communication barriers.
I've never had a boss angrily calling me during my vacation time to demand I come to work - this really raises a whole new set of issues, never mind the fact that it's probably in violation of some law, and at the very least is downright unprofessional.
Based on that alone, I'd be updating my CV and looking for something else if possible.
Good luck to you.