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  1. In Baden Württemberg, the income limit for a spouse to retain Beihilfe benefits from their working spouse is 10k euros.   I have an unpaid status at Uni, Wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin, and I also have a limited teaching schedule which doesn't exceed the 10k euros limit, so I receive Beihilfe benefits through my husband, including the discounted private insurance rate.  Any research expenses I incur right now (generally travel expenses), are deducted from our combined tax statement.   Is it possible to deduct professional expenses from income for the purposes of the Beihilfe income limit, if my gross income were to exceed 10k?   The best reference that I found is copied below.  As I understand it, the German "Werbungskosten" which, although translated into English by Google as advertising costs, is more along the lines of professional expenses in this context.   How liberally are these benefits calculated?  For example,   if my income in a given year were 12k Euros, but i had 2k in travel expenses to the U.S. for research purposes, could I deduct the cost of airfare, car rental, per diem, from my income?  We do have a tax advisor that I will forward this question to the next time we have business with them, but I was hoping to get some ideas from this group, at the very least to help me know exactly what to ask the Steuerberater.   (oh, and also, what is § 13 section 3 EStG?  As near as I can tell it's some sort of farm income) Thanks ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The total of this income can be reduced by Old age relief amount (§ 24a EStG) Relief amount for single parents (§ 24b EStG) the deduction according to § 13 section 3 EStG The resulting sum is the “total amount of income” (section 2 (3) EStG), which is decisive for the annual allowance. From the total amount of income, advertising costs (e.g. contributions to professional associations) and allowances (e.g. saver's lump sum) can reduce the spouse's income. Do not flow into the calculation of the annual income fully or partially tax-free income (e.g. child benefit, maternity allowance, wages from marginal employment, care allowance, etc.) Lottery and totals winnings donations inheritance
  2. A single tear for the Makler: Provision in the crosshairs

      How does a property get appraised then?  The current listings on immobilienscout, for instance, are not comprehensive, and don't show the selling price.  You can get average price per square meter, but how do you customize for age?  Quality?  Specific location?  Health of the HOA?  How do sellers set their selling price?  For example, if we want to make our landlord an offer to buy our condo, where could we get a one-off appraisal without hiring a Makler for the entire job?
  3. A single tear for the Makler: Provision in the crosshairs

    I know the Makler subject has been discussed ad nauseum, and perhaps that is why I cannot find exactly what I am looking for.   When selling a property, what exactly does the Makler do?  I understand that much of the legal requirements are carried out by the Notar, but what about the Makler?   1)  Appraising a property.  This is useful, since there do not seem to be any publicly accessible databases in Germany that list cumulative selling prices, and property tax information is not publicly available. 2) Advertising a property.  The main websites can be used by anyone willing to pay their fees, so not so much necessary to have a Makler. 3) Showing a property and pre-screening potential buyers.  Time saving for the owners I suppose, but not an irreplaceable job. 4) Negotiating on the price- now this is problematic, because the Makler is theoretically representing both the buyer and seller, which is totally illogical. 5)???? 6)??? What other services is a Makler providing?