This is not how things are done in Germany. Skip the annoyed part. Simply write what happened, what was damaged, your price estimate and present them a kind of bill they have to pay. No emotions, no offenses, just total sum they have to pay.
P.S. If you still want to inform them how you're annoyed with their service, write a separate letter. The reason why it should be done like this is because financial things and public relations are managed by different departments, so it's better not to load passenger rights department with unnecessary information they can't use anyway.
AFAIK, in general this is regulated by Warsaw convention which regulates the maximum amount of liability. This depends solely on luggage weight and not on the actual prices of what is inside. This EU regulation stipulates the maximum liability to be 1000 SDR (about 420 euros): http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2002:140:0002:0005:EN:PDF
You can try your luck by contacting the airline although in case of refusal it's not worth suing (unless you have legal insurance).
Ah, I forgot: those refugees (and all other foreigners for that matter) who commit serious crimes, automatically lose a right to Niederlassungserlaubnis and citizenship, so they stay on 2 year permits forever until they can be deported.
Nope, in 2020 nothing will really change. We can only make conclusions after a generation, i.e. no later than 2040. Just like now we can sit and discuss that inviting Gastarbeiter was a good idea. I mean it was good for German economy.
Also, my forecast: secularisation of Islam similar to secularisation of Christianity in Europe. It will happen until then, so European islam will be just as moderate as Christianity. Example of what I'm talking about is Albania (and, to some extent, Kosovo).
Refugee is a protected person, so they are treated like Germans. The regular foreigner can even avoid jail in exchange for self-deportation (anecdotes by law students who had some projects at the facility). Yes, it's much better to be a refugee in this respect. But do you really want to be in their shoes? I think, not.
The situation when a refugee raped German girl was in the news. He was immediately arrested and the court said something like "We don't care if one is from Altmühltal or Senegal, one has to follow the laws". So far, so good. A couple of months later it appeared that the girl lied about it. The police of course charged her for that, but who is following the case? Nobody is following the case because what you want is to confirm your cliches.
The NSU has also happened because the police had cliches in their heads.
Discussion is useless. If one doesn't like German policy on refugees, time to think about moving own ass somewhere else. Because: 1. the policy won't change anytime soon. Even the CSU chef has acknowledged this while there is nothing more radical in this country than the CSU; 2. most Germans are actually more welcoming to refugees than evil Nazi communist Muslim yourkeau; 3. yes, you will pay your taxes just like you will pay your GEZ; 4. current crisis is a start of new era, a new Germany, the country of diversity. Yes, there will be a problem with integration but it will be solved: after all, Germany is a country of people who challenge the problem and solve it.
What @rhody said. If you don't have Personalausweis you should apply for it as it's more handy to use. With Personalausweis you can travel anywhere in the EU/EEA/Switzerland and Turkey.
If you still think you'd rather apply for passport, there is a possibility of getting so called "express passport" (vorläufiger Reisepass) which is valid just one year. Read this page for more information: https://service.berlin.de/dienstleistung/121153/
Your understanding of the law is wrong. It seems that the one who didn't keep safe distance was the car in front. Braking suddenly is not allowed just like driving too close. So, if as a result of your braking someone else would have rear-ended you, this person wouldn't' have been automatically liable just like you are automatically not.
Percentage of your guilt (if any) will be determined by court, so it's foolish of you to accept guilt. Do not accept guilt and hire a lawyer (look for Fachanwalt Verkehrsrecht).
Advice was do not come to Munich during Oktoberfest. You are inviting yourself to another trouble, I thought one fight was enough, wasn't it? Actually everyone should avoid Oktoberfest like a plague, but you in your situation should definitely stay away from it, not crossing half the planet to come, get drunk and involve in another fight.
If you really like German beer fests, come to Volksfest in any other Bavarian city, for example Erlangen's Berch. Beer and everything else there is just as good, but no drunk aggressive people who can cause trouble to you.